There is, however, a lacuna in antarctic nomencla-

ture which slowly forced itself to my notice while

attempting to unravel somewhat the tangled antl im-

perfect records of south polar exploration, and that

is that there is no generic name, either for the lands

south of Australia or for the lands south of South

America. For the name “Antarctic Continent” given

by Wilkes when he, first of all men, became aware

that there was a continent in the neighborhood of the

South Pole, must be held to include the lands south of

South America, as well as those south of Australia :

and moreover the name “Antarctic Continent” is

rapidly becoming superseded, as a generic term, by

the shorter “Antarctica.” The want of a name for the

lands south of South America, however, is especially

troublesome, for all the names at present in use”

South Shetland, Louis Philippe Land, Palmer Land,

Foyn Land, Graham Land, Alexander Land” are

Strictly local. It is necessary, therefore, to find

some term in place of the cumbersome phrases “the

lands south of Australia” and “the lands south of

South America” and taking North America and

South America as models, it seems as if ” East Ant-

arctica ” and “West Antarctica” answered the neces-

sity satisfactorily. It remains to be seen whether

other geographers will see fit to adopt these terms,

but they will be used in this monograph for the sake

of convenience, brevity and clearness.’

Balch, Edwin Swift “Antarctica”, 1902





“That sure is a mean-looking contraption you got parked outside!” the cook added. “Is that what you’re digging through to China with?”

“Not exactly.” Tom grinned. “That’s only my experimental model. The blaster we take down to the South Pole will be somewhat different.”

“How different?”

“Well, look at these drawings. Instead of those digging devices you see sticking out the front end of our experimental model, the new one will have four electrodes spaced around the nose and a long guide vane sticking right out of the center.”





Antarctic Animals – Endangered


Common Name Scientific Name Family Status
Southern Right Whale Eubalaena australis Balaenidae Endangered
Sei Whale Balaenoptera borealis Balaenopteridae Vulnerable
Blue Whale Balaenoptera musculus Balaenopteridae Endangered
Fin Whale Balaenoptera physalus Balaenopteridae Vulnerable
Humpback Whale Megaptera novaeangliae Balaenopteridae Vulnerable
Amsterdam Albatross Diomedea amsterdamensis Diomedeidae Endangered
Antipodean Albatross Diomedea antipodensis Diomedeidae Vulnerable
Tristan Albatross Diomedea dabbenena Diomedeidae Endangered
Southern Royal Albatross Diomedea epomophora Diomedeidae Vulnerable
Wandering Albatross Diomedea exulans Diomedeidae Vulnerable
Gibson’s Albatross Diomedea gibsoni Diomedeidae Vulnerable
Northern Royal Albatross Diomedea sanfordi Diomedeidae Endangered
Sooty Albatross Phoebetria fusca Diomedeidae Vulnerable
Buller’s Albatross Thalassarche bulleri Diomedeidae Vulnerable
Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross Thalassarche carteri Diomedeidae Vulnerable
Shy Albatross Thalassarche cauta Diomedeidae Vulnerable
Grey-headed Albatross Thalassarche chrysostoma Diomedeidae Vulnerable
Chatham Albatross Thalassarche eremita Diomedeidae Endangered
Campbell Albatross Thalassarche impavida Diomedeidae Vulnerable
Pacific Albatross Thalassarche nov. sp. Diomedeidae Vulnerable
Salvin’s Albatross Thalassarche salvini Diomedeidae Vulnerable
White-capped Albatross Thalassarche steadi Diomedeidae Vulnerable
White-bellied Storm Petrel (Tasman Sea)
White-bellied Storm-Petrel (Australasian)
Fregetta grallaria grallaria Hydrobatidae Vulnerable
Antarctic Tern (Indian Ocean) Sterna vittata vittata Laridae Endangered
Subantarctic Fur Seal Arctocephalus tropicalis Otariidae Vulnerable
Imperial Shag (Heard Island) Leucocarbo atriceps nivalis Phalacrocoracidae Vulnerable
Imperial Shag (Macquarie Island) Leucocarbo atriceps purpurascens Phalacrocoracidae Vulnerable
Southern Elephant Seal Mirounga leonina Phocidae Vulnerable
Blue Petrel Halobaena caerulea Procellariidae Vulnerable
Southern Giant Petrel Macronectes giganteus Procellariidae Endangered
Northern Giant Petrel Macronectes halli Procellariidae Vulnerable
Gould’s Petrel Pterodroma leucoptera Procellariidae Endangered
Soft-plumaged Petrel Pterodroma mollis Procellariidae Vulnerable
Kermadec Petrel Pterodroma neglecta Procellariidae Vulnerable
Abbott’s Booby Papasula abbotti Sulidae Vulnerabl



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Douglas Stewart’s poem, “Worsley Enchanted” uses a similar device. Stewart reverses the lens through which Heroic-Era narratives are usually told, relating the crushing of the “Endurance” through which the voice of nine Emperor penguins (Frank Worsley, captain of the ship, had actually observed a group of penguins standing by and making dirge-like cries):

Oh, there was broken wood

There were weeds of iron and rope

The log that was bigger than a tree

Crashed on the frozen sea

And the tall dark penguins stood

And stared at the ice without hope

Said the nine Emperor penguins”

(E.Leane, “Antarctica in Fiction – Imaginative Narratives of the Far South” 2012) 




There we had it, sure enough! I can only compare the scene which now met my eyes, to a sudden view of the range of the Oberland Alps, when the spectator is unexpectedly placed on the verge of the precipice of the Weissenstein. There he would see before him a boundless barrier of glittering ice, broken into the glorious and fantastic forms of pinnacles, walls, and valleys; while here, we saw all that was sublime in such a view heightened by the fearful action of the boisterous ocean, which beat upon the impassable boundary in ceaseless violence. “Good God! Captain Poke,” I exclaimed, the instant I caught a glimpse of the formidable danger that menaced us, “you surely do not mean to continue madly on, with such a warning of the consequences in plain view?”

J.F.Cooper, “The Monikins”, 1871