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1. To maintain a fragile balance between one extreme and another. i.e.: good and evil, sanity and insanity, decency and decadence, etc. 2. To behave; to abide by the the law and/or to abide by moral standards; to walk a straight path of decency by following the rules; to “walk the straight and narrow.”


Expedition deaths during the Heroic Age

Nineteen men died on Antarctic expeditions during the Heroic Age. Of these, four died of illnesses unrelated to their Antarctic experiences, and two died from accidents in New Zealand. The remaining 13 perished during service on or near the Antarctic continent.

Expedition Name Country Date of death Place of death Cause
Belgian Antarctic Expedition Carl August Wiencke Norway 22 January 1898 South Shetland Islands Washed overboard and drowned  
Belgian Antarctic Expedition Émile Danco Belgium 5 June 1898 Bellingshausen Sea Heart disease  
Southern Cross Expedition Nicolai Hansen Norway 14 October 1899 Cape Adare, Antarctica Intestinal disorder  
Discovery Expedition Charles Bonnor UK 2 December 1901 Lyttelton Harbour, New Zealand Fell from ship’s mast
George Vince UK 11 March 1902 Ross Island, Antarctica Slipped over ice precipice
Scottish National Antarctic Expedition Allan Ramsey UK 6 August 1903 South Orkney Islands Heart disease  
Terra Nova Expedition Edgar Evans UK 18 February 1912 Beardmore Glacier, Antarctica Starvation, scurvy and cold  
Lawrence Oates UK 17 March 1912 Great Ice Barrier, Antarctica Starvation, scurvy and cold
Robert Falcon Scott UK 29 March 1912 Great Ice Barrier, Antarctica Starvation, scurvy and cold
Edward Wilson UK 29 March 1912 Great Ice Barrier, Antarctica Starvation, scurvy and cold
Henry Bowers UK 29 March 1912 Great Ice Barrier, Antarctica Starvation, scurvy and cold
Robert Brissenden UK 17 August 1912 Admiralty Bay, New Zealand Drowning
Second German Antarctic Expedition Richard Vahsel Germany 8 August 1912 Weddell Sea Syphilis  
Australasian Antarctic Expedition Belgrave Ninnis UK 14 December 1912 King George V Land, Antarctica Fell into crevasse  
Xavier Mertz Switzerland 7 January 1913 King George V Land, Antarctica Hypervitaminosis A
Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition
(Ross Sea party)
Arnold Spencer-Smith UK 9 March 1916 Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica Cold and scurvy  
Aeneas Mackintosh UK 8 May 1916 McMurdo Sound, Antarctica Fell through sea ice
Victor Hayward UK 8 May 1916 McMurdo Sound, Antarctica Fell through sea ice
Shackleton–Rowett Expedition Ernest Shackleton UK 5 January 1922 South Georgia Heart disease


source: Wikipedia


“Black culture loves ice. We name ourselves after Iceberg Slim, Ice-T, Ice Cube. If you’re the hip-hop group M.O.P you can make a song like “Cold as ice” where you rhyme about “blastin’ niggaz” when they sample stuff from Foreigner’s hit song “Cold as ice” – you’re as cold as ice, you’re willing to sacrifice … (…) So, yeah, there’s along history in black culture of being a “cold muthafucka”. It’s about being a “frigid” person: the ice grill, bling bling, bounce off the light of diamonds in your teeth. Yeah, that’s ice.”

Paul D. Miller, AKA DJ Spooky, that subliminal kid “The Book of Ice” 


The psychotopographic possibilities of an abyss at the South Pole were not limited to Poe and the sequels he inspired. An intriguing variation on the whirlpool myth occurs in an obscure story, Malcolm Ferguson’s “The Polar Vortex”, published in Weird Tales (a pulp magazine focussing on horror and the fantastic) in 1946. More than any other piece of Antarctic fiction, Ferguson’s story directly addresses the relationship between the South Pole and the human psyche. As in Poe’s Antarctic stories, the narrative moves inevitably towards a final annihilating moment of insight as outer and inner space, ego and id, spiral together. “

Elizabeth Leane, “Antarctica in fiction . Imaginative narratives of the Far South”, 2012 





There is, however, a lacuna in antarctic nomencla-

ture which slowly forced itself to my notice while

attempting to unravel somewhat the tangled antl im-

perfect records of south polar exploration, and that

is that there is no generic name, either for the lands

south of Australia or for the lands south of South

America. For the name “Antarctic Continent” given

by Wilkes when he, first of all men, became aware

that there was a continent in the neighborhood of the

South Pole, must be held to include the lands south of

South America, as well as those south of Australia :

and moreover the name “Antarctic Continent” is

rapidly becoming superseded, as a generic term, by

the shorter “Antarctica.” The want of a name for the

lands south of South America, however, is especially

troublesome, for all the names at present in use”

South Shetland, Louis Philippe Land, Palmer Land,

Foyn Land, Graham Land, Alexander Land” are

Strictly local. It is necessary, therefore, to find

some term in place of the cumbersome phrases “the

lands south of Australia” and “the lands south of

South America” and taking North America and

South America as models, it seems as if ” East Ant-

arctica ” and “West Antarctica” answered the neces-

sity satisfactorily. It remains to be seen whether

other geographers will see fit to adopt these terms,

but they will be used in this monograph for the sake

of convenience, brevity and clearness.’

Balch, Edwin Swift “Antarctica”, 1902




“That sure is a mean-looking contraption you got parked outside!” the cook added. “Is that what you’re digging through to China with?”

“Not exactly.” Tom grinned. “That’s only my experimental model. The blaster we take down to the South Pole will be somewhat different.”

“How different?”

“Well, look at these drawings. Instead of those digging devices you see sticking out the front end of our experimental model, the new one will have four electrodes spaced around the nose and a long guide vane sticking right out of the center.”